Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy, is a histologic diagnosis characterized by proliferation of the cellular elements of the prostate. Chronic bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH may lead to urinary retention, renal insufficiency, recurrent urinary tract infections, gross hematuria, and bladder calculi. Risk factors include a family history, obesity, type 2 diabetes, not enough exercise, and erectile dysfunction. The underlying mechanism involves the prostate pressing on the urethra thereby making it difficult to pass urine out of the bladder.
Symptoms of enlarged prostate can include:
• A weak or slow urinary stream
• A feeling of incomplete bladder emptying
• Difficulty starting urination
• Frequent urination
• Urgency to urinate
BPH develops as a strictly age-related phenomenon in nearly all men, starting at approximately 40 years of age. In fact, the histologic prevalence of BPH is approximately 10% for men in their 30s, 20% for men in their 40s, reaches 50% to 60% for men in their 60s, and is 80% to 90% for men in their 70s and 80s.
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be due to an infection as well as other causes; bacteria may leak into the prostate gland from the urinary tract (the most common bacterial cause) and from direct extension or lymphatic spread from the rectum. The symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause of prostatitis; they include painful, difficult and/or frequent urination, blood in the urine, rectal/abdominal pain and/or low back pain, painful ejaculation or sexual dysfunction.